Depending on the mineral nature of the ore, mainly the physical, chemical or physicochemical properties of the different minerals, different methods are used to separate the useful minerals from the gangue minerals and to separate the various commensurate useful minerals from each other as much as possible to remove or reduce harmful Impurities to obtain the sorting process for raw materials required for smelting or other industries.

Reselection method

Reselection method is to divide the mineral beneficiation composition according to the difference in relative density (specific gravity generally known) is. Mineral particles of different densities are subjected to hydrodynamic forces and various mechanical forces in the moving medium (water, air and heavy liquid), resulting in suitable loose delamination and separation conditions, so that different density of ore particles can be separated.

2. Flotation method

The difference in the specific gravity of the mineral raw material particles is used in the medium (mainly water) flow. Yes, jigging, shaker selection, chute selection, etc. Sorting reselection is wolframite, cassiterite, gold sand, coarse primary iron and manganese ore beneficiation methods; rare metals are generally applied to sorting placer. The re-selection of a wide range of particle sizes, from a few hundred millimeters to less than one millimeter, has low beneficiation costs and less environmental pollution. Where the mineral particle size is within the above range and the specific gravity difference between the components is large, it is most suitable to use re-election. Sometimes, some of the waste rock can be pre-selected by re-election (mainly heavy medium selection, jigging, etc.) and then treated by other methods to reduce the cost of mineral processing. With the increase of lean ore and fine mineral raw materials, the re-election equipment tends to be large-scale and multi-layered, and the use of composite sports equipment, such as centrifugal concentrator, shaking turnover, vibrating chute, etc., to improve the re-election of fine-grained materials effectiveness. At present, re-election has been able to effectively select 20 μm materials. Re-election is the most important election for coal.

3. Magnetic separation method

Sorting is performed in an inhomogeneous magnetic field using the difference in magnetic properties of the mineral particles. Ferromagnetic minerals (magnetite and pyrrhotite, etc.) with a weak magnetic separator sorting machine; weakly magnetic minerals (hematite, siderite, iron titanium, wolframite, etc.) with a strong magnetic separator Sorting. The weak magnetic field magnetic separator is mainly an open magnetic system, which is mostly composed of permanent magnets. The strong magnetic field magnetic separator is a closed magnetic system, and an electromagnetic magnetic system is often used. Weak magnetic iron minerals can also be converted into ferromagnetic minerals by magnetization roasting, and then selected by a weak magnetic field magnetic separator. The structure of the magnetic separator is a tubular type, a belt type, a rotary ring type, a disk type, an induction roller type or the like. Magnetic pulleys are used to pre-select blocky ferromagnetic ores. The main development trend of magnetic separation is to solve the problem of recovery of fine-grained weak magnetic minerals. The Jones wet-type strong magnetic field magnetic separator invented in the 1960s promoted the selection of weak magnetic minerals. In the 1970s, a high-gradient magnetic separator with high magnetic field gradient and strength using steel wool or steel mesh as a magnetic magnetic medium and a superconducting magnetic separator with low temperature superconductor instead of normal temperature conductor were invented, which provided good for recovering fine-grain weak magnetic minerals. Prospects.

4.Electrical selection method

Sorting is performed in a high voltage electric field using the difference in electrical properties of the mineral particles. Mainly used for sorting conductors, semiconductors and non-conducting minerals. The electric separator can be divided into an electrostatic concentrator, a corona concentrator and a composite electric field electric separator according to the electric field; according to the charging method of the granules, it can be divided into a contact electrification electric separator, a corona electrification electric separator and a friction electrification electric separator. The electric separator has a narrow particle size range, low processing capacity, and raw materials need to be dried, so the application is limited; but the cost is not high, the sorting effect is good, and the pollution is less; mainly used for the selection of coarse concentrates, such as the selection of white Tungsten ore, cassiterite, zircon , rutile, ilmenite, antimony ore, monazite, etc. Electrification is also used for the classification and dedusting of mineral raw materials. The development trend of electrification is to develop equipment with high processing capacity and high efficiency in sorting fine materials.

5. Picking

Includes hand selection and mechanical picking. Mainly used for pre-selection of waste rock. Hand selection is based on the external characteristics of the mineral and is manually selected. Some of these mines are still in use today. Mechanical picking includes: 1 light picking, using the difference in mineral optical properties; 2X-ray picking, using the characteristics of fluorescence emitted under X-ray irradiation; 3 radiation sorting, using natural radioactive sorting of minerals such as uranium and thorium . In the 1970s, electrical sorting and magnetic picking using mineral conductivity or magnetism began to emerge.

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